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In this paper the mathematical model of legal and shadow economies interaction taking into account risk of shadow economic activity is built.

Yra kriptovaliutų dienos prekybos apribojimas metais gegužės 7 d. Tądien ir vėl visus kviesime imti į rankas lietuvišką knygą ir skaityti drauge. Laisvė dvejetainio įdėjimo parinktis vega Geriausios dvejetainio banko parinktys jos, mes dažnai žaidžiame idėjomis, kaip skaitymą padaryti patraukliu, kaip įtraukti vaikus, tačiau tuo pačiu pamirštame, kad skaitymas yra procesas, kuriam dažniausiai reikia labai mažai: knygos, skaitytojo ir patogios vietos.

This model allows us to determine the dynamics of the savings of economically active population and the rate of the shadow economy.

The simulation experiments make it possible to conduct qualitative analysis of results and determine the factors of the shadow economy legalization.

Keywords: shadow economy, legal economy, economic structure of society, simulation experiments JEL classification: O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements E26 - Informal Economy; Underground Economy Introduction The current economic system is characterized by widespread shadow economy, which necessitates its conceptual and practical analysis.

It should be noted that in a globalized world economy, the shadow economy is structured and complex socio-economic system that has its own laws of development. Figure 1 shows that between the GDP per capita and the shadow economy rate, spausdinti forex trento is an inverse relationship, i. Figure 1. The shadow economy is not controlled by the state, not counted in official statistics, resulting its quantity is not included in the gross domestic product and is not taxable.

Therefore, the functioning of this sector leads to a significant reduction of the share of tax revenues in the budget structure that endanger the implementation of important state programs. In spausdinti forex trento regard, the most promising direction in revenue increasing is attraction of shadow turnover to legal business Nekhaichuk, In the last years, we could see many studies dedicated the shadow economy investigation, in which different approaches and instruments are used.

One of the most common kuriant aukšto dažnio prekybos sistemas is structural equations usage to understanding what factors influence on shadow economy rate. In the article Shadow economies around the world: what do we really know? Schneider estimated the level of shadow economy for countries. Putninš, T. Their method combines estimates of misreported business income, unregistered or hidden employees, and unreported wages, to arrive at an estimate of the size of a shadow economy as a percentage of GDP.

They found that smaller, younger firms engage in proportionally more shadow activity than larger, older firms, consistent with the anecdotal evidence that tax evasion is used by firms to gain a competitive edge, and that having an edge is important in competing in an established market Talis and Sauka, In transitional societies, we can observe a high level of spausdinti forex trento economy Eilat and Zinnes, In this connection particular importance should be attached to modelling of the shadow and the legal economies interaction.

Vitlinskii V. They have got analytical expressions of majorant type in relation to the evaluation of component's volumes and a degree of risk of their coexistence. Koljada Y. They obtained formulas for risk assessment coexistence of legal and shadow economies.

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The result can be used to predict at arbitrary time t. The quality of prediction depends on the coefficients of the mathematical model, initial conditions and scope of the legal economy. Svetunkov S. Using the theory of complex numbers the model to estimate the cost of fixed assets used in illegal production, number of employees involved in the shadow economy and GDP of the shadow economy was constructed.


However, calculations in this model are fairly arbitrary due to the lack of reliable data. The aim of this research is to study the interaction processes between legal and shadow economies taking into account the risk of shadow economic activity. For this goal, the mathematical model of the economy with shadow sector was constructed. Model of legal and shadow economies interaction with extended economic structure of society We have designed the general dynamic model for the legal and shadow economies interaction using the same approach, that Forrester J.

Let us assume that society can be structured by groups of its members elements that had or have relation to the economy and are divided into the following clusters: non-working pensioners n ; workers their number is 0 n ; real sector workers n 1 ; business owners or entrepreneurs 2 n ; pensioners working in the real sector n 4 ; pensioners working in budget organizations n 5 ; elite high-ranking officials and executives of budget organizations employees 3 n 6.

Part of the money βσ 2x2 goes to shadow production, and the rest 1 β σ 2x2 goes to legal production 0 β 1. S µ products is described by production functions S Let us describe differential equations that model the changes in savings and goods prices. This volume consists of products sold in the spausdinti forex trento to consumers of all social groups and products ordered by government ϕ. The first part of the legal sector expenditure includes expenses for salaries of workers of the second and fifth social groups it is proportional to the production output in the legal economy with coefficient ψ and payroll tax k 1 is the tax rateand the other part of costs is production costs λ is the spausdinti forex trento of these costs and the value-added tax k 2 is the tax rate.

The third part includes costs for spausdinti forex trento. Their costs are composed of goods consumption and possible bribes. Pensioners working in the real prekybos strategijos api receive a taxable pension, legal salary and extra "shadow" income.

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Their costs include consumption and possible bribes. Expenses consist of consumption and costs for possible bribes. To solve the system of differential equations 1 7 it is necessary to specify the initial p 0 are known, and to have conditions. The shadow economy analysis shows that the change of the shadow economy under the influence of risk actually occurs with hysteresis.

Based on various experimental studies kaip padaryti dvejetainių parinkčių investicijas spausdinti forex trento of legal and shadow economies interaction bollinger juostos 22 taisyklės expert judgments we can suggest that hysteresis dependence of the shadow economy rate β from the risk q has an average equilibrium state, which corresponds to balance of risk, incomes and expenses for the organization of production, taxes, bribes and wages in legal and shadow production.

In this case, the relationship between change of shadow economy rate and the risk value is illustrated in fig. Empirical Analysis The data for this article were collected from official statistical reviews of Ukraine, but some variables including shares of possible bribes, the amount of misappropriated public funds etc.

To analyze the interaction patterns of shadow and the legal economies interaction based on collected data and described model 1 9 information system Shadow economy was developed. It includes a core based on a MatLab functions and graphical user interface designed using Microsoft Visual Studio 15 Qualitative analysis of the model solutions r prekybos signalai the patterns of regulating influence on the shadow economy and computational experiments with the model allow us to find ways of reducing the shadow economy component.

From equation 8 it implies that at constant risk the shadow economy rate does spausdinti forex trento change and q t.

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Hence, the shadow economy of the s caused decrease only with increasing risk reduced activity of state control of the economy. The state should combat the shadow economy, because it destroys education, culture, morality, undermines sense of justice. Increasing of the risk q t requires budget means and the effectiveness of their use depends on simplicity of economic governance, which leads to cost savings.

Based on the proposed models, spausdinti forex trento series of numerical experiments were done aimed at qualitative analysis of the interaction between legal and shadow economies and state influence on the level of the shadow economy.

The results of the shadow economy modeling in the s reflect the realities of economic phenomena of that period.

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In particular, it was found that the dynamics of savings in different groups is highly dependent on the shadow economy. The presence of the shadow economy increases both a property differences between entrepreneurs and citizens with permanent income and among different groups of wage labor.

Only in the early stages of the shadow economy growth the level of savings of poorest categories of citizens was slightly improved what probably connected with historically known social tolerance to shadow economy.

"Но вскрывать грудную клетку - дело рискованное, даже если подобную операцию делают столь искусные руки, подумала. В наших условиях любая случайность может привести к смерти. Пожалуйста, Роберт, опомнись.

But it should be noted that during the short-lived improve of the welfare of the poorest citizens it was the rapid enrichment of businessmen involved in shadow economy.

Experimenting with the model we were never able spausdinti forex trento find an economic management facilities, when the welfare of high-quality specialists were improved except the situation of overall reduction of the shadow economy. In other words, only a reducing of shadow economy gives a hope to improve the welfare of the people of intellectual labor. We focused our research on the mathematical model of the interaction processes between legal and shadow economies that describes a possible way of interaction based on the economic structure of society.

Based on computational experiments with a model the dynamics of solutions were analyzed.

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In the model excluding risk value we haven't received any solution that leads to a decrease of the shadow sector. To investigate possible ways of reducing the shadow sector the risk of liability for the offense was simulated. During simulation experiments, three qualitative results were obtained. Small risk curbs the growth of the shadow economy, a medium risk leads to the stabilization of the shadow sector at different levels. Only at a high-level risk the shadow sector is reduced.

Therefore, in our experiments only spausdinti forex trento risk of confiscation of entrepreneurs and employees savings obtained through shadow economy and the prekybos galimybės ira sąskaitose of elimination of their legal source of income influenced the reduction spausdinti forex trento the shadow economy. Economic analysis of simulation results shows that the shadow economy can be overcome.

It is necessary to inculcate a set of measures that take into account the general macroeconomic trends of shadow and legal sectors interactions, to leverage risk stopping shadow effects and legalizing of shadow production and to conduct a constant propaganda of legal economic behavior. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and Commission cannot panaudotų akcijų pasirinkimo sandorių apskaita held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

References Buyak, L. Nekhaichuk, Y. Schneider, F. New York : Springer : p. Retrieved January 9, kaip dirbti forex cosplay Varnaliy, Z. Vinnychuk, I. Petrov, L. The paper is devoted to study of the theoretical foundations of European integration policy, development of euroregional cooperation of border Ukrainian territories, to be relevant and important scientific task in the context of spausdinti forex trento modern dynamic development of European integration.

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It is found that cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and the EU is extensive and flexible, effective implementation of which will ensure the spausdinti forex trento of close cooperation in the economic, social, environmental and cultural spheres. This paper is based on a study concerning cross-border cooperation projects as the European Union and the Member States both have a primary interest in promoting regional development in areas located by the EU s external borders.

JEL classification: F53 - International Organizations F55 - International Institutional Arrangements Introduction The European choice of Ukraine is a natural consequence of the country spausdinti forex trento its state independence, ongoing reforms of the previous stage. This choice is due to the history of the Ukrainian nation, its ethnic roots and mentality, deep democratic traditions, based on the fair aspirations of the Ukrainian citizens to see their country as an integral part of a united Europe.

But what does still prevent Ukraine to define finally its integration vector direction and become a member of the European Union?

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First, we must note that the EU is not an organization to be free to join, and a country that claims to be joining this organization should bring its economy in line with the basic criteria of convergence in the EU. Given the recent socio-economic indicators of Ukraine and its arrears to the IMF, the prospect of joining the EU in the near future is absent.

While these are not always the deciding factors, the convergence criteria are not always respected.

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From other side, there is a question of positive effects for EU of Ukrainian integration. Methodology 18 19 To address the aim of the research, a thorough review is performed.

To ensure the required methodological rigor, this review consists of four iteratively executed steps: Step 1. Defining the key direction of Ukraine's European integration strategy. Tough admission standards could keep Ukraine s trade integration with the European Union on hold, and if the process is dragged out long enough, it may be forced back into the arms of its ex-soviet ally, Russia. Step 2. Analyzing the impact of the cross-border projects on spausdinti forex trento development of border regions in Ukraine.

Step 3. Defining whether cross-border cooperation has the potential to transform a border into a possibility for development. This is particularly important in the case of regions on the external borders of the European Union.

Step 4. If there are benefits from the existing potential of cross-border cooperation, we need to investigate the requirements of outside funding, both from the EU and from governments.

Countries with lower level development receive funding from the EU budget is much larger than contributing to it. Most CEE countries receive from 1,5 to 2,5 thousand euro per inhabitant. Almost all the years of Greece in the Eurozone its indicators exceed the Maastricht criteria substantially Chugai, Europe is one of a large-scale solvent and innovative market so many countries, including US, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, trying to fill it.

EU is a territory of highly innovative economy: the average GDP per capita in the EU almost eight times higher than in Ukraine, At the present point of time it is necessary for Ukraine: protection of the domestic market through tax policy; increase the competitiveness of domestic producers, stimulating the development of 19 20 scientific, technological and industrial spausdinti forex trento sectors; improving the investment climate; control of labor migration by increasing the attractiveness of the domestic labor market; implementation of innovated foreign policy Krivobok, In any process, there is both advantages and disadvantages.

We will not leave aside the presence a number of problems in the EU integration character Figure 1. In some EU countries there were even more serious spausdinti forex trento. Today, Greece is experiencing even greater recession than after its accession the EU. Thus, the negative effects of EU membership can have both short-term and long-term nature. Debt crisis and discrediting the integration reputation.

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It is significant that in those EU countries where it was the highest level of public debt to GDP there was also higher fiscal deficit. Consequently, the debt crisis largely caused the budget crisis.

The increasing in public debt and reducing of GDP growth in the EU show the spausdinti forex trento potential of economic development. Social overload. In many EU countries, spending on social protection and social assistance account is from one third to one-half of GDP per capita.

The countries with high debt leverage, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, have a national debt greater than GDP and social expenditures account for more than half of it. Therefore, today's first priority reforms, which the EU expects from Ukraine, are Krivobok, : 1. Anti-corruption reform; 2. Health care reform; pension reform, social security system; 3. Judicial reform.

Reform of the prosecutor; 4. The reform of law enforcement; 5. The reform of spausdinti forex trento electoral legislation; 6. Administrative reform; 7. Reform of decentralization and regional development; 8. Tax reform; 9.